Garcia-Manau P, Garcia-Ruiz I, Rodo C, Sulleiro E, Maiz N, Catalan M, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Balcells J, Antón A, Carreras E, Suy A. Fetal Transient Skin Edema in Two Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Nov;136(5):1016-1020. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004059. PMID: 32649505; PMCID: PMC7575012.
Background: The risk of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. Positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates and placental tissue have been reported, and immunoglobulin M antibodies have been detected in neonates born to mothers with infection.
Cases: The first case is a woman at 22 3/7 weeks of gestation with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who was admitted to the intensive care unit. In the second case, the patient remained at home with mild symptoms, starting at 20 weeks of gestation. In both cases, fetal skin edema was observed on ultrasound examination while maternal SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR test results were positive and resolved when maternal SARS-COV-2 RT-PCR test results became negative. The RT-PCR test result for SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid was negative in both cases. The two pregnancies are ongoing and uneventful.
Conclusion: Transient fetal skin edema noted in these two patients with COVID-19 in the second trimester may represent results of fetal infection or altered fetal physiology due to maternal disease or may be unrelated to the maternal illness.