Mendoza M, Ferrer-Oliveras R, Bonacina E, Garcia-Manau P, Rodo C, Carreras E, Alijotas-Reig J. Evaluating the Effect of Pravastatin in Early-Onset Fetal Growth Restriction: A Nonrandomized and Historically Controlled Pilot Study. Am J Perinatol. 2021 Dec;38(14):1472-1479. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1713651. Epub 2020 Jul 2. PMID: 32615618.
Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effect of pravastatin on angiogenic factors, feto-maternal Doppler findings and pregnancy outcomes in women with early-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR) treated with pravastatin compared with nontreated controls.
Study design: This was a pilot study conducted between March 2016 and September 2017. Women with single pregnancies and FGR diagnosed at ≤ 28 weeks of gestation were offered 40 mg of pravastatin daily. Doppler progression, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1)/placental growth factor (PlGF) values, and pregnancy outcomes were assessed and compared with consecutive historical controls. Controls were matched to treated women for gestational age, maternal characteristics, maternal and obstetric history, Doppler severity classification, and angiogenic factors at diagnosis. The sFlt-1/PlGF was measured in maternal serum at two different times: before pravastatin was started (ratio M0) and during pravastatin treatment (ratio M1). Doppler severity was classified into four categories: normal, mild, moderate, and severe.
Results: A total of 38 women were enrolled in this study. No differences were observed in baseline characteristics between groups. However, when compared with the ratio M0, M1 was increased by a median (interquartile range) of 67.0 (-34.8 to 197.3) in the control group but decreased by a median (interquartile range) of -10.1 (-53.1 to -0.07) in the pravastatin treated group (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in Doppler progression throughout pregnancy. Median interval from diagnosis to delivery was extended by 16.5 days, the median newborn birthweight was increased from 1,040 to 1,300 g, and the number of women with preeclampsia decreased from 9 (47.4%) to 6 (31.6%) in treated women; however, these trends were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: In women with early-onset FGR, treatment with pravastatin 40 mg daily was associated with significant improvement in the angiogenic profile. Additionally, median pregnancy duration and median birthweight increased and the incidence of PE was reduced in treated women. Nevertheless, since this pilot study was underpowered, none of these differences were statistically significant.