Garcia-Manau P, Mendoza M, Bonacina E, Garrido-Gimenez C, Fernandez-Oliva A, Zanini J, Catalan M, Tur H, Serrano B, Carreras E. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase to placental growth factor ratio in different stages of early-onset fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020 Aug 29. doi: 10.1111/aogs.13978. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32860218.
Introduction: Increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase to placental growth factor ratio (sFlt-1/PlGF) has been demonstrated in early-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small for gestational age (SGA). sFlt-1/PlGF cut-offs have been described to assess preeclampsia severity; however, sFlt-1/PlGF values present in early-onset SGA and different FGR severity stages remain unknown. Hence, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the sFlt-1/PlGF values and pregnancy outcomes among early-onset SGA/FGR stages.
Material and methods: This is a prospective case-control study conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital. Singleton pregnancies with estimated fetal weight <10th centile and a control group of uncomplicated pregnancies between 20+0 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were enrolled. Study women were classified at diagnosis into different stages, according to estimated fetal weight centile and Doppler ultrasound. sFlt-1/PlGF serum concentrations were measured at diagnosis and, together with pregnancy outcomes, were compared among FGR severity stages, SGA, and controls. Finally, correlations between sFlt-1/PlGF values and time to delivery, gestational age at delivery, days of neonatal admission, and birthweight z-scores were investigated.
Results: Among the 207 women enrolled, 32 (15.4%) had uncomplicated pregnancies, 49 (23.7%) pregnancies showed SGA, and 126 (60.9%) involved FGR (92 being stage I, 17 stage II, and 17 stage III). SGA and controls had similar median sFlt-1/PlGF values (25.7 vs 27.1, P > .05) and pregnancy outcomes. However, all FGR stages had significantly poorer outcomes and greater sFlt-1/PlGF values than those of SGA and controls. Furthermore, median values differed significantly among all FGR severity stages (9.76 for stage I; 284.3 for stage II, and 625.02 for stage III, P < .05) increasing with FGR severity as well as the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between greater sFlt-1/PlGF ratio values and gestational age at delivery, time from diagnosis to delivery, birthweight z-scores, and time in neonatal intensive care unit (r = -.637, r = -.576, r = -.161, and r = .311, respectively).
Conclusions: Values of sFlt-1/PlGF at diagnosis permit early-onset FGR/SGA severity classification with good correlation with Doppler ultrasound findings and the occurrence of adverse outcomes. Thus, sFlt-1/PlGF could aid in early-onset FGR/SGA severity classification and clinical management when Doppler assessment is not feasible.
Keywords: adverse pregnancy outcomes; angiogenic factors; fetal growth restriction; placental growth factor; small for gestational age; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1.